The purpose of this writing is to provide background information concerning the relationship between water temperature and fish. Since fish inhabit only a small fraction of a body of water, it is imperative to be able to locate these areas; otherwise, it is a waste of your time to fish in areas void of fish.


Type of Casts

The backhand cast is useful for casting on the opposite side of your body. Instead of switching the rod from the dominant hand to the other hand, the dominant hand is employed throughout the cast.

Upstream Presentation

The upstream presentation places the leader directly over the fish’s back and the fly lands directly in front of the fish. Try to cast precisely between the fish’s eyes.

Using Water Temperature in Locating Fish

The angler should know how to locate fish by temperature. Probe a lake’s depth with a thermistor on a calibrated cord.


A vest helps organize your tackle by spreading the weight and the bulk evenly around your upper body. The vest’s back pocket can hold a light rain jacket and refreshments.


Do fish really see leaders and shy away from them, or is it more often an unnaturally moving fly that they avoid, or both? I believe fish notice the drag or unnatural motion imparted to the fly from an unnecessarily stiff leader rather than the visibility of the leader.

Wading Equipment

Felt soles provide traction on slippery, moss covered rock. Consequently felt soles are a good choice for wading rocky streams.


The basic wading rule is to have one foot secured at all times. Never attempt another step without one foot affixed to the bottom.

Water Boatman

Water boatmen are shaped like a flat football and average in length from 1/3”-1/2” maximum. Their oar shaped legs are distinguishing because of their oaring locomotion.

Water Clarity

Clear water improves the fish’s vision; stained water obscures its vision. In addition, fish are more alert in clear water as compared to stained water.

Weed Beds

The quality of angling and the abundance of aquatic plants are usually directly proportional. Extensive weed beds provide the best fisheries.

Western Green Drake

Western March Brown

Wet Fly Methods

Wet Fly Swing

The wet fly swing is used to present the fly in large riffles. Whenever the lie of a fish is uncertain, the wet fly swing system is helpful in discovering secluded fish.

Wiggle Cast

The slack line cast is useful to promote a drag free float across complex currents. Its purpose is to lay out the line and leader in a serpentine manner causing a prolonged drift to occur as the currents unravel the coils.

Wind Direction and Drift Lines

Leeward shorelines collect windblown surface debris. In these foam lines are trapped insects and nearby baitfish.

Wind Direction in Your Face

When casting into the wind, correct the forward cast by tilting the loop somewhat towards the water; likewise, orient the backcast above its usual plane. Drive the forward cast hard into the wind by using a tight casting loop.

Wind on Your Back

When casting with the wind, over power the backcast and drive it below the usual casting plane; likewise, cast the forward cast above its normal plane.


Breezes cause the surface to be broken up, and this impairs the fish’s vision. Calmer water presents the fish with a clearer vision field.


The wind-drift retrieve uses the motion of a lake’s surface ripples and waves to vertically move the fly. Additionally, a boat’s or float tube’s wind-drift advances the fly horizontally.

Wrist Roll Mend

As the wrist roll starts, the rod angle is about 0 degrees and arches to a peak of about 90 degrees and back down to 0 again. This wrist movement causes the rod to reposition the line closer to the angler.

Young’s Presentation

B. Raise the rod upward to pull the fly into lane.

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