2 Tails (Chart)

3 Tails (Chart)

7/8 Upstream Delivery

The 7/8 upstream delivery presents the fly without placing the line over the fish. The cast is made at about a 1:00 o’clock position with 12:00 o’clock directly upstream from the angler.

A Beginning Point

A beginning fly fisherman can learn much about fish habitat by fishing a small stream. First, select a stream with an abundance of naive fish; next, fish 100% of the stream.

Additional Wading Principles

The deeper you wade the less secure your footing becomes because the water’s displacement buoys you upwards so that your effective weight is lessened. The current’s flow affects you more as you wade deeper because it pushes on a larger surface area of yourself that is underwater.

Albright Knot

Commonly used to join the fly line to the backing. It is useful to connect the leader to the fly line (it makes a stronger connection than the nail knot).

Angler Etiquette

Recently the Salt Lake Tribune reported a headline story entitled “Angler Etiquette on the Decline” and “River-rage incident is part of a disturbing trend in a peaceful sport.” On November 13, 2004, one man pulled a handgun to end a heated confrontation. An angler was fishing from a mid-stream rock in Utah’s Green River when a drift boat closely crossed over his fishing hole.


The goal of the approach is to place an angler [you] into the best position to present the fly without alarming the fish. The following variables influence your approach: the fish’s position, water clarity, light intensity, hatch intensity, current speed, wind direction, cover placement, casting obstructions, current maladies, and sound vibrations.

Aquatic Environment

The aquatic environment’s components which relate to the fish are aquatic plants, temperature, light, oxygen, pH, and the surface film. Each will be discussed so that the angler has a better understanding of the factors that influence a fish’s behavior.

Aquatic Foods

Fish feed upon a great variety of water and land born nourishments. An angler’s artificial flies are designed to imitate these foods.

Aquatic Insect Collection

Aquatic Plants

The presence of aquatic plants is one of the best indicators of whether a lake or a stream will be a good producer of fish. Most aquatic life which fish feed upon requires these plants for food.

B.C. Knot


1. Start the backcast with the rod butt as close as possible to your forearm wrist region.

Background Data

Fish are coldblooded animals with their body temperatures controlled by their environments. Temperature directly affects their activities, and each fish species has an ideal temperature range in which they are the most active.


The backing is an added braided line that connects the reel’s spool to the ordinary fly line. Since fly lines average 75-115 feet in length, the lines require backing for those times when a large fish runs out all of the regular fly line.

Backwards Cast

The backwards cast delivers the fly on the backcast. It is mechanically the same as the standard overhead cast; simply look over your shoulder and present the fly on the backcast.

Beaver Ponds

Beaver ponds are capable of providing outstanding fishing. They can unexpectedly appear on stretches of small canyon streams that are too small to provide much of a stable fishery.


Big Yellow May

Blood or Barrel Knot

This knot joins 2 leaders of equal or unequal diameters. The knot works best with leaders under 20# test.

Blue-Winged Olive

Brown Drake



Adult caddisflies are very active. After hatching they can live for about 3 weeks.

Casting Grip

The casting grip is made by placing the thumb extended over the top of the rod’s cork grip. The index finger is directly underneath the thumb with the middle ring finger and little fingers lending support by gripping the cork between the entire thumb and these fingers.

Casting Obstructions

Design your approach so that your final position is not complicated by casting obstructions. Bank side cover may impair your casting stroke making it difficult to make a presentation.

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