Channels are similar to drop-offs in concentrating fish. These are usually caused by an inlet stream.

Classic 3/4 Upstream


Cliffs are great vantage points to look for weed beds, drop-offs, channels, and shoals. Cliffs afford shade, more favorable water temperatures, and collect flotsam which includes drowned or struggling aquatic and terrestrial insects.

Clinch Knot


Perhaps the countdown retrieve is the most valuable still water technique. This retrieve purposefully presents your fly at the desired depth for the longest time.


Bank side and aquatic cover can impair the fish’s vision; consequently, use bank side brush to conceal you during your approach, and to hide your position. Because light refraction can sometimes allow fish to see around corners, fish may be able to see you when you cannot see them.


Craneflies are very large Diptera which resemble large mosquitoes but are preferred by fish because of their abundance. The pupa is not available for fish.

Crayfish: Decapods

Crayfish are an important source of fish food because of their large size and nutritional content. Characteristics of the crayfish are: five strong pairs of legs with the first three pairs having clawed ends, with the first set of legs much larger with strong pincher claws that are like a crab; two beady eyes; a flap-like paddle at the end of a segmented tail; and two pair of antennae.


Crosswinds complicate casting. In Diagram 15 a wind blows the line onto the caster’s body.


There are over 50 different species of the scud. This fascinating crustacean looks and acts like saltwater shrimp so they are often called freshwater shrimp.

Current Maladies

Current eddies and seams can perplex your presentation by causing undue drag. Whirlpools and conflicting currents play havoc on your fly’s drift.

Current Seams

My favorite riffle lies are the current seams created by junctures of fast and slow flows. Here the fish enjoy the best of both worlds: a cushioned lie with food drifting and depositing at its front door.

Current Speed

Current speed influences the vertical position that a fish can hold. The faster the current the less likely a fish can hold close to the surface.


Streambed curvatures form different types of fish holding places. The outside bends or greater curvatures receive the current’s scouring actions.


Dead Water

Dead water refers to wide expanses of shallow, muddy stream bed areas that are void of rooted plants. This habitat lacks the food production ability of a riffle.

Deep Holes

Deep holes are usually resting lies but some can also be considered prime lies. A resting lie awards protection from both predation and current force.

Distance Casting Trajectories

For distance casting, angle the trajectories so it is launched upwards on both the back and forward casts. When the line straightens it will settle to a lower angle.

Double Haul

The double haul cast includes the single haul on the backcast plus an additional haul on the forward cast. Its purpose is to increase line speed and momentum for distance.

Downstream Method

A. Make a reach cast slightly upstream with the fly accurately landing in the feeding lane.


The downstream presentation is useful for calm spring creek and tail water streams. The fly is presented to the fish first without any disturbances from the leader or line.


Drift Boat Fly Fishing

It was the kind of day I love to fish. I pulled with long oar strokes to cross the river’s heavy flow as the boat glided swiftly through the standing waves of the run.

Drift Boats


Fish are driven into the drop-off areas by birds of prey and boat traffic. The drop-offs shelter fish from these annoyances.

Dry Fly Natural Drift

The natural drift’s purpose is to provide a drag-free drift of the fly. During hatching and egg-laying activities, mayflies are motionless creatures.

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