The leader’s purpose is to fool the fish by disguising the fly’s connection to the fly line. Flyfishers refer to the end of the leader as the tippet.

Leeches, Eels, & Lampreys

Leeches are used best for catching large trout while flyfishing. These parasites live on reptiles, snails or cold-blooded fish; some live off plants and dead animals.

Lesser Curvatures

The slower and shallower inside flows of a river bend can be productive habitat. Weed beds can flourish here providing both shelter and insects; furthermore, at times of abundant hatches, fish can prefer these locations.


At the end of the fly’s drift, raise the rod high and let the current pull the fly up to the surface. This imitates the rising emergence of an insect.


As an insect migrates toward the surface it may tire en route and settle back down to rest. The travel direction is an upwards and downwards motion that eventually reaches the surface.

Light Intensity

Light intensity plays a vital role. With increased light the fish’s vision improves, and they will become more wary of predators.


Light influences fish’s activities. A photoperiod is defined as the amount of daylight in a twenty four hour period.

Line Mending

Line mending is a repositioning of the line on the water so that its new position extends the fly’s drift. Plainly, mends are upstream (upwind) or downstream rod flips which reposition the line belly while it is adrift.


All fly lines are sold in weight numbers that correspond to a particular rod’s slow, medium, or fast action. Simply match the line weight designation to the rod’s action weight number.

Little Yellow Salleys

Mahogany Dun



The body is wormlike having 3 segments to the thorax, 9 for the abdominal segments with no distinctive gills, visible legs or wing pads with proleg and head. (Mosquitoes have 10 segments) Large eyes are also located on the head.


Fish may migrate to midstream areas when temperatures are high and oxygen content is low. Here the midstream’s faster riffles and whitewaters mix oxygen into the water.

Mini-Slide Method

The mini-slide presentation offers the fly to 2 or 3 fish in different feeding lanes with the same cast. The fish must be progressively farther away from you in a downstream order.

Modified Wet Fly Swing

The modified wet fly swing is adjusted to fish weighted flies or sink-tip lines along the stream’s bottom. The modification is that the cast is directed three-quarters upstream instead of slightly downstream; this change permits the fly and line to sink deeper.


Larva is similar to the midge larva except they have 10 segments instead of 9.

Nail or Tube Knot

This one provides a smooth connection of fly line to the leader butt.

Natural Lakes

Mother Nature creates natural lakes. Sometimes man enhances them by a strategic placement of a dam.

Off Hand Casting

Being able to cast with both hands is a blessing. In a crosswind, simply, switch hands to cast on the other side.

Other Equipment

1. Knippers: these take up little space and easily cut leaders.

Other Fish Foods

These fish are loners and like to hug the bottoms of streams and lakes. They usually feed on insects, snails, aquatic worms, other fish and crustaceans.


Outlets gather food like a vacuum pump; consequently both surface and subsurface foods are concentrated by their gradual but increasing current action. Outlets are usually open areas with little hiding places for protection.

Overall Tips, Points and Advice

1. The casting stroke is a smooth accelerated movement ending in a sudden stop.


Oxygen is essential to all aquatic animal life. Without it respiration is impossible.


The pH scale is a measure of the acid and base concentration of a solution. A pH of 7 is neutral; 0-7 is the acid range and 7-14 is the base or alkalinity range.

Pale Morning Dun

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